Thomas Emlyn a learned Divine, no less distinguished for his talents and integrity, than for the firmness with which he endured persecution for conscience' sake, was one of the first among the Protestant Dissenters, who had the courage publicly to avow his disbelief of the doctrine of the Trinity. The example so nobly set by him was followed, timidly and reservedly indeed in some cases, but openly and avowedly in others, by many of his Brethren in the ministry among the Protestant Dissenters. The number of Ministers connected with the Presbyterian body, who embraced Arian and other Antitrinitarian opinions at the beginning of the last century, and who were in the course of their education before 1710, has been shewn, by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., to have been considerable. Nor can it be doubted, that this result was owing, in a great measure, to the educational influences under which their minds were formed, in such seminaries as those in which Mr. Emlyn was trained up for the Christian ministry.
He was born at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, May 27th, 1663, and is represented by Dr. James Foster, who enjoyed his friendship, and paid a lasting tribute to his memory by preaching his funeral sermon, as having had, "from an early period of life, strong and most serious impressions of religion upon his mind, not tinctured with enthusiasm, nor derived from mechanical and superstitious terrors." His father's name was Silvester Emlyn, or Emley, as he originally wrote the name;—a man of great plainness and honesty, who possessed a small estate in the neighbourhood of Stamford, which he kept in his own hands, and under his own management. His mother's maiden name was Mildred Dering. She was the daughter of Mr. John Dering, near the ancient village of Charing, in Kent ; and was a woman of piety and benevolence, as well as of good natural abilities, and cultivated understanding. Thomas Emlyn, their son, was sent as a boarder to the school of Mr. Boheme, of Walcot, near Folkingham, in the eleventh year of his age ; and remained there four years. The incumbent of the parish at that time was the Rev. Richard Brocklesby, a popular Preacher, whose ministry young Emlyn attended as long as he remained at school. His parents were upon intimate terms with the learned and worthy Dr. Richard Cumberland, then Minister at Stamford, and afterwards Bishop of Peterborough ; and though members of the Church of England, and regular attendants upon its services, they were so far friendly to the principles of Dissent, that they determined upon bringing up their son as a Nonconformist Divine, and their chief reason for so doing was the fact, that a more serious and earnest spirit prevailed among the Dissenters, than the members of the Established Church.
After having received the necessary ground-work at school, he was sent for academical education, in the year 1678, to the Rev. John Shuttlewood, A. B., who kept a Seminary at Sulby, near Welford, in Northamptonshire. He remained under the care of Mr. Shuttlewood four more years, but appears not to have been altogether satisfied with the state of things in that gentleman's Academy; for in 1678, he went to Cambridge, and was admitted into Emmanuel College. He was induced, however, for some reason not stated by his biographers, to forego the advantages of a University education, and place himself again under the charge of Mr. Shuttlewood, with whom he remained till the autumn of 1682. He then became a student in the Academy of the Rev. Thomas Doolittle, A. M., first at Islington, then at Clapham, and afterwards at Battersea, where he enjoyed greater facilities for improvement, both by means of books and literary conversation. But still finding the sphere in which he lived not to be sufficiently large, and perceiving that Mr. Doolittle, though a very worthy and diligent Divine, was not remarkable either for compass of knowledge, or depth of thought, he determined to enter at once, though at the early age of nineteen, on the labours of the ministry, and preached his first sermon at Mr. Doolittle's Meeting-house, near Cripplegate, on the 19th of December, 1682.
In the following year he succeeded the Rev. Joseph Boyse, as Chaplain in the family of the Countess of Donegal, a lady of large landed property in the North of Ireland, but then living in Lincoln's-Inn Fields. At the time that he undertook this Chaplaincy, it was her Ladyship's intention to return to Ireland ; but she remained another year in England, which gave Mr. Emlyn an opportunity of witnessing the execution of Lord William Russell, who fell a sacrifice to the merciless and vindictive temper of the Duke of York, afterwards James II., and who may truly be said to have died a martyr for the cause of liberty and his country.
In the year 1684, Mr. Emlyn accompanied the Countess and her family to Belfast. He received from her a very handsome allowance, and was treated by her, as well as by Sir William Franklin, whom she soon afterwards married, with the greatest possible respect. While in this situation, he appears to have had numerous friends among the clergy of the Established Church ; and indeed he had a license from the Bishop of the diocese, in which his patroness resided, to preach facultatis exercendce gratia, which gave occasion to his Dissenting Brethren to suspect, that he had changed his sentiments, and gone over to the Church. But his refusing to accept a living offered him in the West of England by Sir William Franklin, because he was dissatisfied with the terms of ministerial conformity, was a proof that his early impressions remained unchanged ; and a visit which he soon afterwards paid to Dublin, and during which he preached to the Dissenting congregation assembling in Wood Street, contributed not a little to remove the suspicions of his anxious friends, who knew his worth, and were conscious that in him the cause of Dissent would have lost a most able and eloquent advocate.
His services were so well received by the congregation to which he preached at Dublin, that, soon afterwards, on his leaving the family of the Countess of Donegal, he was invited to succeed Mr., afterwards Dr. Daniel Williams, who had retired to England, and to become the Co-pastor of the Rev. Joseph Boyse. This invitation he at that time declined, and returned to London in the month of December, 1688, where his great talents were for a time wholly unemployed.
His son informs us, that, in his journeyings between Ireland and London, he several times accepted the invitation to preach in the parish Churches of some towns through which he passed, and particularly Liverpool.
In the month of May, 1689, he was prevailed upon by Sir Robert Rich, one of the Lords of the Admiralty who had invited him to his house at Beccles, to officiate as Minister to a small congregation of Protestant Dissenters at Lowestoft, in Suffolk. It was during his residence at this place that he contracted his intimacy with the Rev. William Manning, of Peasenhall;—an intimacy, which probably led to that important change of sentiment, which afterwards took place in his mind. They were accustomed to converse on religious subjects, and to express to each other their respective opinions ; and as the doctrine of the Trinity was then the prevailing subject of controversy, they were naturally led to bestow some attention on a question so generally discussed. The result of their examination was, that Mr. Manning became a believer in the simple humanity of Christ ; and Mr. Emlyn settled down into a kind of Arianism, which it does not appear that he ever afterwards deserted, though he classed himself under the general title of Unitarian, in his publications.
The principal reason of Mr. Emlyn's return to England was the landing of King James II. on the Irish coast, in 1688, which threw the whole country into the greatest confusion ; but when that weak and bigoted Monarch had fled into France, and affairs were tending to a settlement in Ireland, the Nonconformist Divines re-assembled their congregations in great numbers, and Mr. Emlyn was invited to become Co-pastor with Mr. Boyse. This second invitation he was led, from a prospect of a larger sphere of usefulness, to accept ; and accordingly in May, 1691, he undertook the important charge which had devolved upon him, little suspecting that his acceptance of this situation was to expose him to so much unmerited suffering as he afterwards experienced. But had it been possible for him to have foreseen all that happened to him, there is no reason to suppose that his heart would have shrunk from the encounter, or that his courage would for a moment have forsaken him.
With this congregation he continued several years in the faithful discharge of his duties ; and in 1694 was married to Mrs. Esther Bury, a lady of good property, and respectable connexions, who had been induced, by the fame of Mr. Emlyn, to leave the Established Church, and become one of his hearers. Thus happily situated, he experienced all the comforts which he desired, except perhaps that his conscience was not perfectly at ease respecting the difference of opinion on the doctrine of the Trinity, which existed between himself and his congregation.
His belief in the Trinity had been first shaken during his residence at Lowestoft, by the perusal of Dr. Sherlock's "Vindication" of that doctrine, the arguments of which he discussed with his friend, Mr. Manning. He was afterwards confirmed in his doubts, by the study of Mr. Howe's controversial writings on the same subject. Alluding to his change of sentiments, in his Narrative of the Proceedings of the Dissenting Ministers of Dublin against him, and of his Prosecution in the Secular Court, (Sect, ii.,) he says, "I own I had been unsettled in my notions from the time I read Dr. Sherlock's book on the Trinity, which sufficiently discovered how far many were gone back toward polytheism: I long tried what I could do with some Sabellian turns, making out a Trinity of somewhats in one single mind. I found that by the tritheistical scheme of Dr. Sherlock and Mr. Howe, I best preserved a Trinity, but I lost the Unity. By the Sabellian scheme of modes, and subsistences, and properties, &c, I best kept up the divine Unity: but then I had lost a Trinity, such as the Scripture discovers, so that I could never keep both in view at once. But after much serious thought, and study of the Holy Scriptures, with many concerned addresses to the Father of lights, I found great reason first to doubt, and after, by degrees, to alter my judgment in relation to formerly received opinions of the Trinity, and the supreme Deity of our Lord Jesus Christ." He professes not to have made his reason the rule of his faith, but to have exercised it merely with a view to judge what was the meaning of the written rule, or word of God ; and by adopting this plan, he was led to form notions, different from those in which he had been instructed, though not wholly agreeing with those either of Arius or Socin.
This change of sentiments rendered his position in some degree painful to him; for though he studiously refrained from attacking the opinions of others, whose views approached more nearly to the orthodox standard than his own, he was equally careful not to advance anything in his public discourses, of which his own judgment and conscience did not approve. He seldom, or never, introduced controversial topics into the pulpit, thinking it better, apart from all considerations of a prudential nature, to confine himself chiefly to subjects, calculated to promote the interests of piety and virtue.
Writing to his friend, Mr. Manning, April 1st, 1697, he says, "I meddle not with any but practicals in preaching, i. e. the agenda and petenda, and such only of the credenda as are contained in the Apostles' Creed. I begin to think, that the greatest part of controversial divinity about the covenants, &c, is much like the various philosophical hypotheses and theories, where men in the dark are pleased with their ingenious romances, and if they can maintain that so matters may be, they soon conclude so they are and must be, without authority, which in religion must not pass. There is nothing I more sincerely desire than right knowledge of important truths ; and it is some satisfaction, that I am sure I am not biassed by interest, or love to worldly esteem ; and if one err unwillingly about the blessed Jesus, I should hope it may be pardoned, tho it would sincerely grieve me to promote any such thing me thinks the clouds and darkness, that surround us and others, make this world an undesirable stage of confusion. May I know God and Christ, so as to love them, and be transformed into a divine likeness! and then surely the wish'd-for day will come, when that which is imperfect shall be done away."
About the time that this letter was written, Mr. Emlyn had some thoughts of openly declaring his sentiments in relation to the Trinity, and resigning his office as Minister of the Wood-Street congregation ; "for," says he, in a letter to Mr. Manning, (Jan. 18th, 1697,) "I cannot hope to continue here in my present post, when once I have professed." Yet he doubted, whether he ought to abandon a station of unquestionable usefulness, unless some occasion should arise, imperatively calling upon him to make a public and explicit statement of his altered views. He resolved, however, at the same time, to embrace the first opportunity of this kind which should present itself: "for I was ever averse," says he, "to any mean compliance against my light in sacred matters."
Things continued in this state to the close of the seventeenth century. Till then, few Ministers had ever been more respected and beloved, and few men more happy in all the relations of social and domestic life. But the scene was now changed. In the year 1701, his happiness was suddenly interrupted by the loss of his wife, on the occasion of whose death he preached a sermon from John xiv. 28, "If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said I go to the Father: for my Father is greater than I." This loss was a grievous trial to him at the time ; but in the year 1703, when he published the sermon on his wife's death, under the title of "Funeral Consolations," he observed in the Preface, that it was a seasonable preparation for the further trials which awaited him, and enabled him to bear them with a more resigned and Christian spirit, by endearing to him the hopes of the future, and reconciling him to death, as the way to it. "As to that dispensation of Providence," says he, "which occasioned this Discourse, I do therein, with great reverence and satisfaction, adore the righteous wisdom of the supreme Lord of life and death, by whose appointment, according to the prophet's observation, righteous and merciful men are taken away from the evil to come. For considering what was in the womb of Providence, and so near to its birth, I cannot but reckon it an apparent design of mercy to her who is deceased, that she should be carried into the quiet harbour, before so furious a tempest did arise ; which might have made too cruel impressions on a disposition so very gentle and tender. But she was gathered into her grave in peace, that she might not behold it. Moreover, by such a rebuke, so adapted to strike at the root of all earthly love and delight, the all-wise God might greatly prepare him who was to survive, for better enduring his approaching trials: since thereby neither the prosperity nor adversity of this world, could be any great temptation to one, who had less reason than ever to be fond of this life ; and so loud an admonition, never to seek his contentment on this side God and Heaven. 'Lord, what wait I for? My hope is in thee.'"
Afflictions now came thick and heavy upon him ; for not only had he lost a beloved and promising child a short time before, but in about six weeks after, it pleased God to call to her account his excellent mother. To these successive trials he feelingly alludes, in a letter addressed to a relation in England, who had communicated to him tidings of his mother's death. "I find by yours," he writes, "that the all-wise God is pleased to appoint me sorrow upon sorrow, by removing a tender and excellent mother, so soon after the loss of a most amiable and loving wife. In this year I have lost (if I may say so of the death of the righteous)
a desirable young son, a wife and mother ; enough to teach me the vanity of all present things, and to draw my thoughts and desires into that world, whither they are translated."
These calamities, however, were the precursors of others, which were far more trying to him than death itself would have been. The removal of his wife and mother saved them from a weight of sorrow, which, had they survived only a few months, would have bowed their gentle spirits to the earth, and aggravated in a tenfold degree his own sufferings. Within half a year of the time at which the above letter was written, he became the victim of a series of persecutions, which stand almost unparalleled in the annals of religious bigotry. The cause of this additional inroad upon his happiness was the suspicion, that he had embraced notions concerning the Trinity, contrary to those which are reputed orthodox ; and the person who was the first instrument in raising the hue and cry against him was Dr. Duncan Cummins, a celebrated Physician of Dublin, and a member of his own congregation. This gentleman had been brought up for the ministry, which probably rendered him more quick-sighted in detecting any shortcomings in the way of orthodoxy, than he might otherwise have been. By observing that Mr. Emlyn avoided the use of certain well-known pulpit expressions, and the arguments usually employed in defence of the common opinion respecting the Trinity, his suspicions were awakened ; and having spoken upon the subject to Mr. Boyse, they determined to call upon him, for the purpose of ascertaining his real sentiments. At this time, it appears, no one but Dr. Cummins had the least idea of Mr. Emlyn's heterodoxy ; and, but for that gentleman's inquisitiveness, matters might have gone on much longer, without a suspicion on the part of other members of the congregation.
On being urged to state what his opinions actually were, Mr. Emlyn thought himself bound, as a Christian, to declare them openly and without reserve. He therefore admitted, at once, that he believed the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ to be the only Supreme Being ; and that the Son derived all authority and power from Him alone. But he also stated, that if he was obnoxious to the congregation on account of his opinions, he would immediately resign, and give them an opportunity of choosing another Minister, whose views were more in accordance with their own. This plain and easy method of settling the matter was however refused him ; for Mr. Boyse, thinking the charge against his Co-pastor of too serious a nature to be decided upon by himself and the congregation, assembled the Dublin Ministers, who immediately directed, that Mr. Emlyn should not be permitted to preach any more, thus endeavouring to bring him into disgrace, and destroy his reputation as a Minister of the Gospel. Upon this, he lost no time in calling together the Deacons of the congregation, and resigning his charge, which led to strong expressions of regret, on the part not only of several of his regular hearers, but even, it is said, of Dr. Cummins himself, who probably intended nothing more, than to obtain from his Pastor a formal recantation. If such, however, was his object, the event proved, what an erroneous estimate he had formed of the character of him, with whom he had to deal.
When Mr. Emlyn announced to the Deacons, and other leading members of his congregation, his intention to dissolve the connexion, which had so long and so happily subsisted between them and himself, by resigning the pastoral charge, he was told, that they would be satisfied with a short retirement from his public duties, provided he would abstain from preaching during the interval. It was proposed, therefore, that he should go to England for a while, that there might be time for further consideration. This proposal, however, was to be submitted to the Dublin Ministers for their approval ; and as no objection was raised on their part, two of their number were deputed to inform Mr. Emlyn of their decision, but at the same time to charge him, as they expressed it, not to preach anywhere in England. To this imperious message he replied, that he had no intention of preaching upon the questions in dispute between himself and his brother Ministers, wherever he might go ; but that, in forbidding him to preach, they assumed an authority to which they had no right, and that he might just as reasonably issue a prohibition against them, as they against him. Upon this, they intimated their intention of writing to the London Ministers on the subject ; to which he replied, that they might use their own discretion, reserving to himself the power of doing the same.
It appears, that one of the two messengers, who were the bearers of the aforesaid ministerial dictum, was of the Independent persuasion, which led Mr. Emlyn to say, in his "Narrative of the Proceedings" against him,—" If the Presbyterians and Independents claim such a power as this, not only to reject from their own communion, but to depose from their office, such Pastors of other Churches as conscientiously differ from them in opinions ; and to extend this to other kingdoms, forbidding them to preach there also: I think they have a mighty conceit of their own large dominion, and discover a very ridiculous ambition. I wonder who gave them this sovereign deposing power over their Brethren, any more than the Pope his arrogated power of deposing other people's kings: nay, who ever heard, in the primitive Church, of such a strange creature as a Presbytery made up of the Presbyters of several and different Churches?"
Mr. Emlyn, however, having consented, for the sake of peace, to withdraw for a time, embarked for England the very next day, to the great inconvenience of himself and his family. But no sooner had he left Dublin, than a clamour was raised against him, and his opinions were attacked, where he least of all expected it,—from the pulpit. "And now," says he, "I had leisure to look back ; for when so few days space had made so great a change in my condition, that I was turned out to wander abroad desolate and in uncertainty, I saw I was entered upon a dark scene, and must arm for various, though I knew not what, trials. What then were the workings of my anxious thoughts! what the deep reflections, and black presages! what the conflicts of spirit! what the cries and tears before the God of all wisdom and comfort, is best known to Him who sees in secret. I could not forbear saying often with wandering, afflicted David, 'If I shall find favour in the eyes of the Lord, he will bring me back to see his ark and his habitation ; but if he say, I have no delight in thee, here am I, let him do as seemeth good to him.' I had not been of so unsocial a nature as not to relish the society and love of my dear friends, nor was insensible of the pangs of a violent separation; nor yet so mortified to the world, as not to feel some little difference between contempt and respect, fulness and straits: but still my convictions of truth were so clear, that these things never staggered my resolutions of adhering to it, in the midst of all discouragements."
On being informed, that some of his Brethren among the Presbyterian Dissenters in Dublin had made public his sentiments concerning the manner of the union between God and Christ, and had thus raised a violent clamour against him, he drew up, and printed, "The Case of Mr. E. in Relation to the Difference between him and some Dissenting Ministers of the City of D. which he supposes is greatly misunderstood." This was published in London, about the month of August, 1702; and, together with "An Advertisement by another Hand," occupies the sixth place in the "Fourth Collection of [Unitarian] Tracts." In reply to it the Dublin Ministers published a statement of their own, drawn up by Mr. Boyse, and entitled, "The Difference betwen Mr. E— and the Dissenting Ministers of Dublin truly represented." The substance of this statement, together with his own, was afterwards appended by Mr. Emlyn to his "True Narrative," in order that the reader might compare the two accounts, and form an impartial judgment respecting the points at issue between himself and his brethren in the ministry.
After about ten weeks' absence in England, notwithstanding the discouraging intelligence which he received from Dublin, he thought it necessary to return to his family ; and in order to put the public in possession of the true grounds of his opinions, he wrote his "Humble Inquiry into the Scripture Account of Jesus Christ;" intending to leave for England in a few days after it was printed. But a zealous Church officer among the Baptists, of the name of Caleb Thomas, being acquainted with his design of returning to London, obtained a special warrant from the Lord Chief Justice, Sir Richard Pine, to seize him and his papers; and himself accompanied the keeper of Newgate, to see the warrant executed. This was in February, 1702-3 ; but on account of the difficulties felt by his opponents in wording the indictment against him, his trial was deferred till the June following, and during the interval two of his friends entered into recognizances for his appearance, in a bond of eight hundred pounds. The large amount of bail indicated that the charge against him was not thought lightly of;—a fact, which was afterwards corroborated by his being told by a gentleman of the long robe, that he would not be permitted to defend himself, "but that it was designed to run him down like a wolf, without law or game."
Mr. Emlyn appeared to take his trial about the middle of Trinity term, 1703, but was told that the bill was not then found, although he had pleaded to the indictment, and been furnished with a copy. It appears that some flaw had been discovered, as to the words alleged to have been taken out of the "Humble Inquiry." A second indictment therefore was drawn up. But this too was abandoned, on account of some informality. A third was then brought in, which was found by the Grand Jury; and the trial came on, June 14th. To justify a verdict of guilty upon the indictment, it was necessary that the jury should know, and be thoroughly persuaded, first, that the assertions and declarations attributed to Mr. Emlyn were not only false, but impious, and not only false and impious, but also blasphemous and malicious in their own nature and import, or in the common acceptation of the terms ; and secondly, that they were the actual assertions and declarations of Mr. Emlyn. Neither of these points was proved on the trial. The generality of eminent Divines, both ancient and modern, assert that the Father is the principle, cause and fountain of the Son and Spirit, whence they have their essence and divinity, and in that respect grant that the Son and Holy Spirit are not equal to the Father. Mr. Emlyn and the Dublin Ministers were agreed, as he says, that God is but one infinite, necessary, perfect and supreme being, or spirit, with one understanding and will, who is the sole object of divine worship: and that he was in an ineffable manner united to the man Christ Jesus, dwelling and operating in him, by a fixed and perpetual influence, as the governing principle. But he differed from them as to the manner of this union. He conceived it to be more for the honour of Jesus Christ to suppose that the Deity, in its full conception, was united to him, and dwelt and operated in him, than to suppose it only of a portion of God, or of God but partially considered: and he held this to be the plain doctrine of Scripture, which says, "in him dwells all the fulness of the godhead" (Col. ii. 9); as well as of Jesus Christ himself, who expressly affirmed, that the Father dwelt in him, and did the works. (John xiv. 10.) The question at issue was, whether the union was a strictly personal one, so as to make God and the man Christ Jesus one, and the same person. The affirmative view of this question was taken by the Dublin Ministers, and the negative by Mr. Emlyn. But nothing can be further from the truth, than that Mr. Emlyn, either by word of mouth, or in his published writings, advanced anything which was intended to dishonour, or degrade Jesus Christ, of whom he uniformly spoke with the greatest possible respect and reverence. Still less could it be said, that his assertions and declarations on this subject at any time partook of the nature of blasphemy and impiety, on any fair and legitimate construction of those terms. But putting this entirely out of the question, it was found impossible, on the trial, to prove that Mr. Emlyn was the author of the book, on which the prosecution was grounded.
The indictment charged him with having written, and caused to be printed, a book, entitled "An Humble Inquiry into the Scripture Account of Jesus Christ." It was not enough, therefore, to justify the verdict of guilty, that he caused it to be printed and published. It should have been proved that he wrote it ; and this proof was wanting. But finding no evidence of authorship, a messenger was despatched for Mr. Boyse, who, on being examined as to the subject-matter of his Co-pastor's public discourses, admitted, that he had introduced nothing of a directly controversial nature into the pulpit, "but only some things that gave ground of suspicion to some;" and on being further asked, what he had said in private conference with the Ministers, replied, that the declarations, which he had made in the presence of his Brethren, "was judged by them to be near Arianism." But this only proved an agreement between the sentiments of the book, and those which Mr. Emlyn had avowed in the course of conversation. It so strengthened the presumption, however, in the eyes of the jury, that it had more influence upon their decision, than any other part of the evidence, as the Bishop of Kilmore (Dr. Wettenhall) assured Mr. Emlyn, in the course of one of those private and friendly visits, with which he was honoured by that Prelate, after his conviction and imprisonment. This indeed, without either himself or his counsel having attempted a proper defence, was considered sufficient to substantiate the charge against him. The counsel were afraid even to touch upon the subject; and Mr. Emlyn was convicted of the alleged libel, simply because the Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench informed the jury, that "strong presumption was as good as positive proof."
Mr. Emlyn's biographer, (who was his own son,) attributes the arbitrary and overbearing manner of Lord Chief Justice Pine, the Judge who tried the case, and who was generally inclined to moderation, to the presence of sundry Prelates, among whom were the Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin. His Lordship was accustomed to make large professions of moderation among his friends on this side the Channel, nor is there any reason to doubt that he was sincere in these professions ; but perceiving that, in browbeating the counsel and jury, he was doing what would prove acceptable to the Church dignitaries who were present at the trial, he broke through all the usual bounds of judicial decorum, and, at the conclusion of his charge, gave to the jury a significant intimation, that, if they brought in a verdict of acquittal, "My Lords the Bishops were there."
Perhaps the jury were not to be much blamed, for giving credit to the presiding Judge, that certain clauses in the book were criminal and blasphemous at common-law ; but they were assuredly censurable for not exercising their own judgment in the matter, and acquitting Mr. Emlyn, on the ground of insufficient evidence. As it was, their verdict, but for the growing liberality of the times, might have furnished a precedent for the prosecution and ruin of the most learned men of the two kingdoms, to say nothing of its tendency to justify, or at least to palliate, the persecution, by Roman Catholics, of all who conscientiously, and on scriptural grounds, dissent from their communion, and to render insecure the main bulwarks of Protestantism, by aiming a deadly blow at the principle of private judgment and free inquiry.
When, after a short deliberation, the verdict of Guilty was announced, the Attorney-General expressed a wish, that Mr. Emlyn might "have the honour of the pillory: "but sentence was deferred, and he was committed to the common gaol, till June 16th, which was the last day of term. In the mean time, Mr. Boyse, appalled at the result of his own thoughtlessness, and lamenting that he had taken so active and prominent a part in the matter, began to shew some feeling of concern for Mr. Emlyn, and to use his interest in preventing the infliction of so degrading a punishment as the one prayed for by the Attorney-General. It was also suggested to Mr. Emlyn, that he would do well to address a supplicatory letter to the Lord Chief Justice ; in compliance with which suggestion, he penned the following lines in prison, and forwarded them to his Lordship.
"Though your Lordship may perhaps judge me guilty of a fault that you cannot admit any apology for, yet I may presume upon so much compassion, as to have leave to offer something by way of mitigation: I do assure your Lordship, that I have no greater desire than to learn the truth from the Holy Scriptures, by which I shall always be guided according to my best light ; and if I am mistaken in my opinions, God knows, it is altogether unwillingly. It is most obvious that I have forfeited my interest, and sacrificed my reputation in the world, and exposed myself to such evils, as nothing could ever make me submit to, but the real fear of offending God ; which your Lordship will, I doubt not, allow for a very great reason. I am ready to do anything consistent with my judgment and conscience ; but I am afraid to do that, for fear of shame from men, for which, my conscience may suggest to me, that Jesus Christ will be ashamed of me at the great day. I imagine, by something spoken on my trial, that your Lordship conceived I had written some deriding, scornful expressions of the holy Jesus, which I am sure I never designed ; the sum of the whole book being only to shew the Father to be greater than he, not denying him any glory consistent with that. I hope that as the great and merciful God will sooner forgive many errors of the understanding, than one wilful crime ; so your Lordship will make a considerable difference between disputable errors, which men of probity and learning are divided about, and scurrilous reflexions on the blessed Jesus, which are intended for contempt, which my soul shall ever abhor. I shall only presume to add, that as it is entirely for my conscience that I suffer, so I can never be deprived of the comfortable support which such a consideration carries in it ; having, I hope, learned in some measure to be conformed to him who endured the cross, and will shortly appear the righteous judge of all. Knowing how much depends on your Lordship's favour and clemency, as to the penalty I am liable to, I intreat for it, and am Your Lordship's, &c."
Upon his appearing to receive sentence, it was moved by Mr. Brodrick, one of the Queen's Counsel, that he should retract, which having refused to do, the Lord Chief Justice informed him, that his sentence was, to suffer a year's imprisonment, pay a fine of a thousand pounds to the Queen, find security for his good behaviour through life, and lie in prison till the fine was paid. The pillory, he was told, was the punishment due, but, on account of his being a man of letters, it was not inflicted! He was then led round the Four Courts, with a paper on his breast, for the purpose of exposing him to public odium ; and even this disgraceful treatment was spoken of, by the Lord Chief Justice, as merciful, because in Spain or Portugal the sentence would have been nothing less than burning. After this public exposure, he was conducted to prison, where he remained in confinement till his penalty was mitigated from a thousand to seventy pounds, in consequence of the repeated solicitations of Mr. Boyse, the generous interference of Thomas Medlicote, Esq., the humane interposition of the Duke of Ormond, and the favourable report of the Lord Chancellor, Sir Richard Cox, who declared that such exorbitant fines were contrary to law.
But though Mr. Emlyn's prospects thus became brighter, he had yet to endure another instance of severity, which might surely have been spared him by a person so high in Church preferment as His Grace the Archbishop of Armagh (Dr. Narcissus Marsh). This Prelate, as Queen's Almoner, claimed a shilling in the pound upon Mr. Emlyn's fine ; but instead of charitably relinquishing his right to make this charge upon the whole fine, and resting satisfied with seventy shillings, His Grace exacted the utmost farthing, and insisted upon Mr. Emlyn's adding another twenty pounds to the seventy already paid to the crown. "I thought," says Mr. Emlyn, "that the Church was to be as merciful as the State ; but I was mistaken herein." This treatment, however, was only on a par with that which he received from his brother Ministers; for during the whole of his imprisonment, which lasted from the 14th of June, 1703, to the 21st of July, 1705, no one of them, excepting Mr. Boyse, endeavoured, in the least degree, to mitigate his sufferings, or even performed the common courtesies of life, by calling upon him.
But, notwithstanding all the mean and contemptible artifices of his persecutors, Mr. Emlyn was enabled at length to leave the wretched country, in which he had found so little sympathy, and embark for England ; happy, no doubt, in removing from a scene of so much suffering, yet carrying with him no uncharitable feeling, and no desire of revenge, or retaliation, on his bigoted and intolerant calumniators. This latter fact is evident, from his having suppressed the "Narrative" of his sufferings, for no less than fourteen or fifteen years after his return to England ; and, even then, having sent it into the world full of sentiments the most mild, benevolent and compassionate, destitute of all keen invective, and favourable in its construction upon the motives of those, who had been most active in instigating and carrying on the prosecution against him. But this was not all. The time chosen by him for its publication was one, which ought to be held memorable by every genuine advocate of Christian liberty, as that in which the principles of Protestant Dissent achieved one of their noblest triumphs. This leads him to say, at the close of his "Narrative,"—" It is a further ground of rejoicing, to see the light of important truth breaking forth in many other parts," (alluding more particularly to London and the West of England,) "and spreading abroad its beautiful ray ; that God has raised up divers others, bold enough to profess it, and able enough with his assistance to defend it; I mean, with weapons of spiritual warfare, against those whose great confidence and dexterity is in those which are carnal. And though it has been my great gravamen or misery to be laid by in silence ; so that I have been sometimes ready to lament myself as an unprofitable servant, turned out of his Master's service : yet if I have contributed anything to retrieve the injured honour of the peerless majesty of the one God and Father of our Lord Jesus, whom to be like to, was the great glory of our Lord Jesus ; and if the things which have happened to me, have fallen out rather to the furtherance of the Gospel, I shall not think myself to have been wholly useless: for though I shall ever prefer the interests of serious piety, charity and practical holiness, to any barren speculations ; and had much rather a man should love our Lord Jesus in sincerity, than barely think of him just as I do ; yet if I have also served the cause of his truth, it may be 'tis beyond what I could have done, by teaching men only what they would have taught them ; because there will never be men wanting to take that office, while fewer will take the part I have borne, to the hazard of all that the world counts dear and pleasant. However, as matters were, I had no room for an innocent choice, nor any other part but this left me ; being judged unworthy, and made uncapable, of all the rest. Yet, during my confinement in the Marshalsea, as I suffered on account of religion, so I continued to preach there: I had hired a pretty large room to myself ; whither on the Lord's days resorted some of the imprisoned Debtors, and from without doors came several of the lower sort of my former people and usual hearers, who would not wholly forsake me, nor refuse to worship God with me, which was a great pleasure in my condition. And if in the whole I may hut approve myself to the great Judge, and giver of the prize, I am not anxious about the applause or censures of the spectators, who shall be judged also."
The prosecution of Mr. Emlyn was so unjust in itself, the verdict so iniquitous, and the sentence so utterly disproportionate to the alleged offence, that public attention was drawn to it on both sides of the Channel; and a universal feeling of disgust was excited against the promoters of it. In the "Dedication to Pope Clement XI.," prefixed to Sir Richard Steele's "Account of the State of the Roman Catholic Religion throughout the World," but written by the Bishop Hoadly, (see his Works, Vol. I. p. 537,) and first published in the year 1715, this prosecution is alluded to in the following strain of playful sarcasm. "Sometimes we of the Established Church can manage a prosecution (for I must not call it persecution) ourselves, without calling in any other help. But I must do the Dissenting Protestants the justice to say, that they have shown themselves upon occasion, very ready to assist us in so pious and Christian a work, as bringing Heretics to their right mind ; being themselves but very lately come from experiencing the convincing and enlightening faculty of a dungeon or a fine. The difference between these two sorts of persons is this: the one differ from us about ceremonies of worship and government, but they boggle not at all at the doctrine settled for us by our first Reformers: it is all with them right and good, just as Christ left it at first, and Calvin found it above fifteen hundred years afterwards. The others, unhappy men, look upon this to be straining at a gnat, and swallowing a camel. However, the former sort having a toleration for their own way, upon subscribing all our doctrines, can the more easily come to persuade themselves, that the Christian world is unhinged, if the latter should be tolerated in their opposition to doctrines, which have been called fundamental, even by Protestants, for so many years.—This hath been particularly experienced in Ireland by one who could not see exactly what they saw about the nature of Christ before his appearance in this world. For as with you, a man had better blaspheme Almighty God, than not magnify the Blessed Virgin, so with many of us it is much more innocent and less hazardous to take from the glory of the Father, than of his Son. Nay, to bring down the Father to a level with his own Son is a commendable work, and the applauded labour of many learned men of leisure ; but to place the Son below his own Father in any degree of real perfection, this is an unpardonable error ; so unpardonable, that all hands were united against that unhappy man ; and he found at length, that he had much better have violated all God's commandments, than have interpreted some passages of Scripture differently from his Brethren. The Non-conformists accused him, the Conformists condemned him, the Secular power was called in, and the cause ended in an imprisonment and a very great fine ; two methods of conviction about which the Gospel is silent."
Upon Mr. Emlyn's return to England, he preached for some time to a small congregation at Cutlers' Hall, in London, once every Sunday, that his time might, if possible, be usefully employed. But he did this without any remuneration, although his income had been greatly reduced by his wife's death, her jointure having gone with her, and her estate having come to her children. The liberty of preaching, however, which he enjoyed, gaveoffence to several of the clergy belonging to the HighChurch party; and particularly to Mr. Charles Leslie, who, in his "Rehearsal," (Vol. II. No. 29,) expresses great dissatisfaction at it. He openly applauds the Dissenters of Dublin for prosecuting Mr. Emlyn, whom he charges with Socinianism; and says, "I know where he lodges, if anybody has a mind to speak with him." The insinuation contained in these words is the more contemptible, on the part of this high-flown Churchman and Non-juror, because at the very time that he expressed his willingness to disclose the retreat of Mr. Emlyn, who made no secret as to his place of residence, he was himself afraid of being known, and went under the feigned name of White. In his Answer to Mr. Emlyn, (p. 41,) Leslie says, " You end with a declaration against persecution, but can instance only in yourself amongst our Unitarians, and that by the Presbyterians, and in a country (Ireland) where there is no toleration of Socinians. But since you have come under the protection of our laws, you have had City Halls for your Meeting-houses, and free liberty to preach till you are weary, without making any recantation, but to gain what proselytes you could ; nor have you met with any disturbance, that I hear of, unless you think that my writing against your principles is a persecution, and yet I run more hazard by it than you do."
Another person to whom Mr. Emlyn's liberty of preaching became peculiarly offensive, was the Rev. Francis Higgins, Rector of Balruddery, in the county of Dublin, who was remarkable for his scandalous immoralities, and turbulent temper. This Clergyman complained of the indulgence extended to Mr. Emlyn, first in a sermon, and afterwards in a personal application to Dr. Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury. But the Archbishop was not ignorant either of what had befallen Mr. Emlyn during his residence in Ireland, or of his having assembled a congregation in London ; and His Grace had too high a sense of his own honour, in the dignified position which he held in the Church, to molest Mr. Emlyn, although the Lower House of Convocation seconded the complaint of the Clergyman above mentioned, and, in a representation to the Queen, made in the month of June, 1711, did not scruple to assert, that "weekly sermons were preached in defence of Unitarian principles." This representation was supposed to have been drawn up by Dr. Francis Atterbury, the Prolocutor, whom Mr. Emlyn reminded, in his "Observations" upon it, that " Christ was not condemned, but under a charge of blasphemy, and St. Paul was a pestilent fellow, if we may believe the eloquent Prolocutor of the Jewish Convocation;" that the assembly, which he had set up, was formed not on Unitarian, but on Catholic principles ; and that the weekly sermons alluded to were preached in defence of Catholic principles, the Unitarians having sufficiently defended theirs "in a public manner, and over and over again importuned the Convocation to hear them."
In a few years Mr. Emlyn's little flock was dissolved by the death of the principal persons who supported it ; and as he was himself in some degree disabled in the use of his limbs, he retired altogether from his ministerial labours, and spent the remainder of his life in comparative obscurity. But it was a great satisfaction to him to see the progress of that truth, for which he had written and suffered so much, extending itself far and wide among the Protestant Dissenters; and to be assured, by several of his former hearers in Dublin, that the odium, which once attached to his opinions, was fast wearing away even in Ireland. To a considerable portion of the Presbyterians and Baptists, and even of the Independents, Antitrinitarianism had ceased to be the frightful thing which it once was, and more particularly after the celebrated meeting of the Dissenting Ministers at Salters'-Hall, when it was said, not less expressively than truly, by Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls, that "the Bible carried it by four." (Whiston's Mem. pp. 220, 221.) But even before that decided expression of opinion on the subject of a doctrinal test, the principle of subscription to articles of faith was virtually abandoned, by the more liberal Ministers of the Three Denominations. Of this we meet with undeniable evidence in the writings of contemporaneous authors. In a work entitled "Modern Pleas for Schism and Infidelity review'd," the writer says, "The present Anabaptist, or Independent Teachers, do not subscribe to those positions, or articles of faith, as those their predecessors did: neither do the Presbyterian Teachers now subscribe to what their predecessors (at least in name) call'd the Assemblies Confession of Faith: and therefore we are as much at a loss, to know what the Faith of either of these sets of Dissenters now is, as if those books were never wrote. If their Faith is the same now as then, why do they cease publicly avowing it by subscription? If their minds are alter'd in some points, why don't they publish those alterations, and so, like the glorious St. Augustine, make themselves valued for their recantations? Or if, as some of them pretend, they agree with thirty-six of our thirty-nine Articles, why have they not given some way or other a publick and common consent to them? But thus to be content with a bare negative creed, and to let the world only know what they perversely deny and dispute, will tempt an honest and impartial man to think, that either they are asham'd, as a body, to own their Faith, or else are so perplex'd in the matter, that they know not what they believe themselves." (Pt. i. pp. 48, 49.) Yet such was still the feeling of timidity which prevailed among the more liberal portion of the Dissenting Ministers of London, and the fear of an open rupture with their more orthodox Brethren, that none of them had the courage to ask Mr. Emlyn to preach for them, except Mr. Joseph Burroughs, and Mr. (afterwards Dr.) James Foster, the Ministers of the Baptist congregation at Barbican, who, to shew their catholic temper and Christian spirit, invited him more than once to occupy their pulpit.
About the year 1726, on the death of the Rev. James Peirce, of Exeter, several, who had been in the habit of attending the ministry of that eminent Divine, expressed a wish to see Mr. Emlyn appointed his successor, and some steps were taken for that purpose ; but, as soon as it reached the ears of Mr. Emlyn that such a thing was in contemplation, he requested that nothing further should be done in the matter, assigning as a reason, that he was incapacitated for the active duties of the ministry by his declining years, and the feebleness of his limbs. But although he withdrew altogether from public life, he continued to be honoured with the esteem and friendship of several persons of great learning and eminent stations. Among these were Mr. Whiston, Dr. Samuel Clarke, and Dr. James Foster, whose acquaintance would of itself have entitled his memory to respect.
In his retirement he became the author of many small works, and was engaged in several controversies on account of his religious opinions, particularly one with the Rev. David Martin, Pastor of the French Church at Utrecht, respecting the genuineness of 1 John v. 7. Mr. Emlyn wrote two tracts to prove that this passage was an interpolation. Mr. Martin defended it in three, and had the honour of being left in possession of the field, "which has been thought by many learned men to have been the only honour he obtained." Previously to this, (in the year 1706,) Mr. Emlyn had published his "Vindication of the Worship of the Lord Jesus Christ on Unitarian Principles;" and he subsequently, during the remaining years of his life, advocated the cause of Unitarianism in the most able and successful way, by the publication of various controversial works. But perhaps none of his writings has been so instrumental in promoting his opinions, as the Narrative of his Sufferings,—a book which cannot fail to make a deep and lasting impression on all who read it, as containing an example of Christian Philosophy, and greatness of mind, which has seldom been surpassed ; and as shewing the efficacy of the plain and simple doctrines of the Gospel.
In the last two years of Mr. Emlyn's life he became much more feeble, and about a twelvemonth before his death his bodily frame received a violent shock, which it was expected would have proved fatal to him ; but he so far recovered from the effects of this, as to be able to get through the ensuing winter, without any further breach upon his health. The time, however, was now approaching, in which the last trial of his firmness and integrity was to take place ; and in the year 1741, his repeated illnesses had so far impaired his constitution, and debilitated his frame, that his friends entertained the strongest apprehensions that he would not long survive. In the month of July of the same year his disorder increased so rapidly, that his feeble nature could no longer continue the struggle, and he expired on the 30th of that month, in the seventy-ninth year of his age,—declaring with almost his latest breath, that no scene of his life afforded him more solid satisfaction than that in which he was so severe a sufferer for conscience's sake. "There is," said he, on the Saturday preceding his death, "such a thing as joy in the Holy Ghost: I have known it, and oh, how much is it beyond all the joys of this world!" At the same time he expressed a very thankful sense of the goodness of God, in supporting and comforting him under the various trials through which he had passed.
Sollom Emlyn, Esq., who wrote his father's Memoirs, after giving an account of the last moments of his venerated parent, adds, with a just and honest pride, the following pertinent remarks. "Thus he departed this life in peace, but not till he had first seen the salvation of God, both in his own deliverance from the hands of his persecutors, who were stronger than he, and also in the deliverance of those sacred truths, for which he suffered, from the odium and reproach they had long lain under ; for though he suffered trouble, as an evil-doer, even unto bonds, yet the word of God was not bound.—He had struggled hard with the powers of darkness, and came off victoriously ; he had faithfully performed the task assigned him without shuffling or prevaricating, and persevered therein to the end, so that he might truly say with the great Apostle, 'I have fought the good fight ; I have finished my course, I have kept the faith;' and I question not, 'there is henceforth laid up for' him 'a crown of righteousness;' for of such as are persecuted for righteousness' sake, our Saviour has himself assured us, that great is their reward in heaven."
Mr. Whiston, as soon as he heard of Mr. Emlyn's death, addressed to the son of his "great and good friend" the following letter of condolence.
Lyndon, August loth, 1741. "Dear Sir,—I did not receive your melancholy letter, till the same day that the public news informed us of the death of your father, though son John had given us notice of it before. I sincerely condole with yourself, Mrs. Emlyn, and his other relations and friends, upon the loss of one whom we all greatly and justly loved, on account of his perfect integrity, strong judgment, great courage, and most Christian temper; which were especially shewn in making a good confession of some of the most important truths of our holy religion; and that not only of late, when that confession is (God he praised) not of such ill reputation, or so dangerous, but when it was under the greatest odium, and exposed men to terrible penalties. Accordingly, I look upon his losses and sufferings in Ireland as next to martyrdom, for which he was well prepared; and I esteem him as the first and principal confessor with us, for those articles of primitive Christianity: nor are what Dr. Clarke, or Mr. Jackson, or myself, or Mr. Tomkins, or Mr. Gibbs, &c. have lost on the like account, to be compared to them. Had I been in London I should very readily have afforded him all the assistance I was able ; though perhaps that fever which carried him off might not thoroughly permit him to join in such devotions, as otherwise he was highly disposed for, and desirous of in the last period of his holy life. However, 'tis now several years, that he has waited 'till the day of his appointed time, when his great change should come ; and after such an incurable infirmity as he has long had, you should no way be surprized at his death, since at 78 he is come to his full age, 'like as a shock of corn cometh in his season.' Since his habitual preparation and uncommon degree of piety was all along so remarkable, there is no doubt but he is now where all good men desire to be, in that land of promise, —where no torment can touch them. Nor ought we to 'sorrow' for any good Christian, as others 'which have no hope' in their death ; much less so eminent and religious a Christian as your father was ; nor indeed did the ancient religious patriarchs seem to have been so unwilling to die, as good Christians are in our later ages. And as for the martyrs, they were carried to their graves, when they were permitted to have any, with hymns of praise for their having escaped the miseries of this sinful world ; and the day of their martyrdoms was called the day of their nativity, and celebrated yearly with great joy.
Your affectionate friend and servant,
His remains were interred in the cemetery at BunhillFields; and it was originally intended, that a Latin epitaph should be inscribed on his tomb-stone. But this intention was abandoned, and one in English was substituted in its place. Both are given in the Memoirs of him by his son, from which they are transferred to Dr. Kippis's account of him in the "Biographia Britannica."
The compositions of Mr. Emlyn are remarkable for thenclearness, and strength of argument. His sentiments are intelligibly expressed; his language flows easily and naturally; and his appeals to the passions, in his published discourses, often rise to a high strain of eloquence. His controversial writings were published, during his life-time, under the following title. "A Collection of Tracts, relating to the Deity, Worship, and Satisfaction of the Lord Jesus Christ, &c, in two Volumes, by Thomas Emlyn. London, 1731." But the best edition of his Tracts is the fourth, which was published in the year 1746, in two volumes, 8vo., and to which were prefixed Memoirs of his Life and Writings by his son, Sollom Emlyn, Esq., who was brought up to the Law, and became an eminent Counsellor. The following are their titles, with the original dates of publication.
Vol. I.—1. A True Narrative of the Proceedings of the Dissenting Ministers of Dublin against Mr. Thomas Emlyn ; and of his Prosecution (at some of the Dissenters' Instigation) in the Secular Court, and his Sufferings thereupon, for his "Humble Inquiry into the Scripture-Account of the Lord Jesus Christ:" Annis 1702, 3, 4, 5. To which is added an Appendix containing the Author's own, and the Dublin Ministers' Account of the Difference between him and them, with some Remarks thereon. 1719.
2. An Humble Inquiry into the Scripture-Account of Jesus Christ: or A short Argument concerning his Deity and Glory, according to the Gospel. 1702.
3. General Remarks on Mr. Boyse's Vindication of the True Deity of our Blessed Saviour; to which is added, An Examination of Mr. Boyse's (and from him Dr. Waterland's) Answer to the Objection from Mat. 24. 36, and Mark 13. 32, "Of that Day knoweth none, not the Son, but the Father only." and also A short Reflexion on Mr. Boyse's Argument for the Supreme Deity of Jesus Christ, from the Creation of all Things being ascribed to him. 1704.
4. A Vindication of the Worship of the Lord Jesus Christ, on Unitarian Principles: in Answer to what is said on that Head, by Mr. Jos. Boyse, in his "Vindication of the Deity of Jesus Christ;" to which is annexed, An Answer to Dr. "Waterland on the same Head. 1706.
5. The Supreme Deity of God the Father demonstrated: in Answer to Dr. Sherlock's Arguments for the Supreme Divinity of Jesus Christ, or whatever can be urged against the Supremacy of the First Person of the Holy Trinity. 1707.
6. A Brief Vindication of the Bishop of Glocester's Discourse concerning the Descent of the Man Christ Jesus from Heaven, &c, from Dr. Sherlock, the Dean of St. Paul's Charge of Heresy: with a Confutation of his new Notion in his late Book of "The Scripture-Proofs of our Saviour's Divinity." 1707.
7. A Letter to the Reverend Dr. Willis, Dean of Lincoln ; being some Friendly Remarks on his Sermon before the Honourable House of Commons, November 5, 1705. 1705.
8. The Previous Question to the several Questions about Valid and Invalid Baptism, Lay-Baptism, &c, consider'd: viz. "Whether there be any Necessity (upon the Principles of Mr. Wall's History of Infant-Baptism) for the continual Use of Baptism among the Posterity of Baptiz'd Christians? 1710.
Vol. II.—1. Remarks on Mr. Charles Leslie's First Dialogue on the Socinian Controversy. 1708.
2. A Vindication of the "Remarks on Mr. Charles Leslie's First Dialogue on the Socinian Controversy." 1708.
3. An Examination of Mr. Leslie's Last Dialogue, relating to the Satisfaction of Jesus Christ: together with some Remarks on Dr. Stillingfleet's "True Reasons of Christ's Sufferings." 1708.
4. A full Inquiry into the original Authority of that Text, 1 John v. 7, "There are three that bear Record in Heaven, &c," containing an Account of Dr. Mill's Evidences from Antiquity for and against its being genuine ; with an Examination of his Judgment thereupon: humbly address'd to both Houses of Convocation : with a Postscript in Answer to the Excuses offer'd to take off the Force of this Address. 1715.
5. An Answer to Mr. Martin's "Critical Dissertation on 1 John 5. 7, 'There are three that bear Record, &c.,"' shewing the Insufficiency of his Proofs, and the Errors of his Suppositions; by which he attempts to establish the Authority of that Text from supposed Manuscripts. 1718.
6. A Reply to Mr. Martin's Examination of the Answer to his Dissertation on 1 John 5. 7. 1720. To this Reply is added a Postscript, containing Three Letters. One from Father Le Long, Priest of the Oratory at Paris, to Mr. Martin, relating to R. Stephens's MSS. Two from Mr. La Croze, Library-Keeper to the King of Prussia at Berlin, relating to the Dublin and Berlin MSS. 1746.
7. Dr. Bennet's New Theory of the Trinity examin'd: or, Some Considerations on his Discourse of the Everblessed Trinity in Unity ; and his Examination of Dr. Clarke's Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity. 1718.
8. Remarks on a Book, intitled, "The Doctrine of the Blessed Trinity stated and defended," by four LondonMinisters, Mr. Tong, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Reynolds: with an Appendix concerning the Equality of the Three Persons, and Mr. Jurieu's Testimony to the Primitive Doctrine in this Point. 1719.
9. The Rev. Mr. Trosse's Arguments answered ; relating to the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Deity of the Holy Ghost: taken from his Catechism, and Sermon on Luke xxii. 31, printed at Exon. 1719.
10. Observations on Dr. Waterland's Notions in Relation to Polytheism, Ditheism, the Son's Consubstantiality with, and Inferiority to the Father: being some Short Notes left imperfect by the Author. These Observations were written in the year 1731.
11. Memoirs of the Life and Sentiments of the Reverend Dr. Samuel Clarke. 1731.
In addition to the preceding "Collection of Tracts," a volume of Mr. Emlyn's Sermons was published by his son, in the year 1742. They are eighteen in number, and chiefly of a practical nature. All of them were posthumous, except the last two. The former of these was preached at Dublin, October 4th, 1698, before the Society for the Reformation of Manners ; and the latter was the first Sermon which the author preached after the death of his wife, and is entitled, "Funeral Consolations."In drawing up the preceding account of Mr. Emlyn, the author was indebted, for the use of certain books and extracts, to his friend, the Rev. Jerom Murch, to whom he begs to acknowledge his special obligations for this, and other aid of a similar kind, afforded him during the progress of his work.